Comparison between 1-hour and 24-hour drain clamping using diluted epinephrine solution after total knee arthroplasty.
– P. Earnshaw.
This article combines the use of epinephrine to minimize blood loss as taught by Carl Nelson with variations in clamping time of drains following total knee arthroplasty. Clamping beyond 1 hour had no impact on blood loss or transfusion but did affect overall complication rates. It is notable that only 3 patients out of 44 were transfused. In itself, this represents a significant advance over not too distant practices of transfusing the majority of such patients.
– R. K. Spence.