This population based study in a random sample of US citizens found that anemia is associated with mortality. This finding likely means that the underlying disease that led to anemia is associated with mortality rather than the anemia itself. However, the study also found that the risk of death appeared to vary by underlying cause of anemia. Patients with nutritional deficiencies and chronic renal insufficiency had the highest risks of death, which were significantly different from patients with unexplained anemia.

– Jeffrey L. Carson