Vesicle encapsulated hemoglobin solutions have been under development in Japan for several decades. Many experimental studies support the perception that this technology may ultimately lead to the development of a blood substitute that provides sufficient oxygen carrying capacity to support the organism after severe blood losses. A primary concern has been the comparatively high encapsulation ratio, whereby the phospholipid membrane and encapsulated hemoglobin are partitioned about 30/70. Experimental studies have not evidenced acute toxicities associated with this configuration and the present study completes this panorama by exploring the short term (24 hr) potential effects on kidney function when vesicle solutions are used as a blood replacement for hemorrhagic shock. This study reports that toxicity results were essentially identical to those obtained using blood, further advancing support for the potential of this technology for becoming the long sought after blood substitute of universal application.

– Marcos Intaglietta