Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication of blood transfusion and has been the leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality over years. Two different types of TRALI have been identified: immunogenic TRALI caused by donor leukocyte antibodies and non-immunogenic TRALI mainly mediated by biologically active lipids in a “two-hit event”.

In the present case study with controls, patients were prospectively enrolled at 2 US academic medical centres to define the clinical course and outcomes in TRALI. TRALI produced a signature of vital sign abnormalities that mirrors the systemic inflammatory response with a decrease in platelet counts and an increase in neutrophil and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. TRALI patients showed higher in-hospital morbidity with longer duration of mechanical ventilation and longer intensive care and hospital stays.

– Rainer Moog

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