These guidelines on volume therapy should be considered in the bundle concept of patient blood management (PBM) for enhancing tolerance to anaemia and for correction of absolute hypovolaemia due to perioperative blood loss.

Systematic, interdisciplinary, independent and transparent analysis of evidence, practice and physiology requires us changing traditions in volume replacement: from a one-size-fits-all non-brainer strategy based on pressure parameters towards an individualised and goal-directed approach based on dynamic and/or metabolic indices.

– Sibylle Kozek-Langenecker